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Essentials for Using Linux FTP
Brought to you by Andrea Cordingly and the team at reallylinux.com
shares the basics of FTP and a number of
unique ways to automate FTP updating and maintaining of files on a
server. The tips include applying basic shell scripting and using text editors.
In a recent article on WebServers, I provided insights how to password protect your
Website directories using the Apache overrides and .htaccess files. You may want to review the article exclusively on reallylinux.com.
Now, this article focuses exclusively on transferring files to your web
server or between a Linux server and Windows PCs. My hope is that anyone who needs to use FTP on a regular
basis will gain some insights to make their life easier, and enjoy the power of a Linux server.
In the following steps, I share those essential
tips needed for using FTP and creating special command files to automate FTP tasks, to ensure you get
everything done successfully.
FTP In a
important to note that in most cases and to do almost all basic FTP
file handling you can simply login to your server through the
interface of a web browser. For example, I can use either Windows or
Linux and FTP to my example site. Once login is complete I can
simply use my browser to navigate and then use drag and drop to copy
Simple drag-and-drop copying of files from Windows to Linux FTP Server.
Note the use of this command in a web browser: ftp://website.com (replace website with your site name)
the most basic copying of files from a local computer to a
host/server using FTP, I still think using the browser or one of the
many GUI programs is great!
about in an emergency, or when certain commands such as chmod (change
the permissions of a directory or file) need to be performed? I hope
to give you ideas not only how powerful the command line is in Linux,
but also to encourage you that through the command line you can
automate FTP to a really fantastic level! Also remember we have a number of other commands articles on our reallylinux.com Help Page.
people have used FTP from the command line
at some point in their lives. For those that have not I include this
To use FTP
(file transfer protocol) you must understand that it is an
independent tool to login to a remote server and copy files.
Therefore every FTP sessions requires at least login information as
well as the destination server name, also called hostname. In most
cases your website or server on the Internet
will have a name such as mywebsite.com or an IP address such as
126.96.36.199. You can access the server using FTP using either of
start an FTP session you need to know that you are no longer in the
command line or shell but rather within the FTP tool itself. It's
easy to tell since your prompt will change to FTP>_ and you will
be able to type FTP related commands.
See all of
the FTP related commands you can use by typing ? when you're in the
FTP tool or at the FTP> prompt.
common and important commands within FTP are:
cd change directory on the remote SERVER
.. change directory up one level on the remote SERVER
the current directory you are within on the remote SERVER
files within the current directory on the remote SERVER
the FTP tool to transfer binary files such as applications or images
the FTP tool to transfer ascii or text files such as .html files
put copy a
specific file from the local machine to the remote SERVER
get copy a
specific file from the remote SERVER to the local PC
the file permissions on a remote SERVER if you have access
a specific file on the remote SERVER
your FTP connection
while you're in FTP you can also do things on your local PC, which is
often necessary to make life easier.
directory on your local PC
.. change directory up one level on your local PC
the current directory you are within on your local PC
example of a common set of commands used to change an existing
photograph on my website then I could, once logged in, use this:
directory to www then to Photos then set the file transfer mode to
binary (used for images or applications). The final command copies
the photo newimage.jpg from my local PC to the remote Server.
you say, I know all that jibberish above! What I really need is a
way to copy batches of files or make changes to a whole directory of
worry. The FTP tool allows for this as well.
multiple files using a wild card like * from the local PC to the
multiple files using a wild card like * from the server to the local
always a good idea to check which local directory I'm in.
Next, I confirm that I'm in the correct remote server directory to
send the files to. Finally, I run the command to copy only my jpeg
images to the remote server.
beginners this is plenty of good useful information. However, let me
share some tidbits and tricks used by those Linux experts to manage
used the command line FTP before, you know that there are a number of
manual inputs required. You obviously need to designate your FTP
site, your login, password and then change to the appropriate
next few steps I will help you create two "script" files. One is
called a shell script and will automate running certain Linux
commands. The second is a simple FTP script that automates your FTP
the lingo may get a bit techno but please bear with me. At the very
least, you can simply copy my examples and try them out. There's no
better way to learn!
Shell Script Startup File: ftpstartup
creating a file named ftpstartup. Create and save this file into the
directory you will be transferring data
to/from using your favorite text editor.
ftpstartup file include these lines:
# This script allows you to divert output of
# date command to the mkdir command
# resulting in creating a directory of todays date
does wonderful and helpful things!
run this file, which we haven't done yet the script will automate the
creates a means of naming a backup directory today's date (lines 5
then copies all existing files you plan to FTP to the newly created
it starts the FTP script file we will create next to automate all
How do I
do all this in four lines?! Well, for those who are interested here
are the details. OTHERWISE, PLEASE SKIP AHEAD TO FINISH THE TASK.
starting line #!/bin/sh indicates that this is a shell script that
should use the bash shell in Linux. If that confuses you don't
worry. It allows you to automate tasks. We automate a MAJOR painful
task of creating backup directories based on today's date by passing
the variable "Today" into the commands we want like mkdir and cp.
Once this happens you run the date command, get
the output of the current Month and Day and pass this to the mkdir
command. The mkdir command then makes a backup directory with
today's date. You can use this technique for thousands of different
automated tasks in Linux. The cp command copies all of the files to the backup
directory, and thus we ensure that even if FTP flakes out we have a
daily backup of our files. You can change the backup from daily to
weekly, monthly, whatever. For instance just remove the %d from the
date command in line 5 and you will only retain monthly backups of
files. This is very useful since ftping using automated processes
sometimes may hiccup.
Now let's keep going, this is going to get even more useful.
Script File: autoftp
to create your autoftp file that automates your FTP work for you. In
the text editor write these lines:
open an FTP connection to my website; replace with your own site and
relevant information of course;
login with my personal account and my password;
perform the needed change directory commands to go to the appropriate
cases you need to drill down a few directories. You can also use one
simple line like: cd /www/LatestPhotos;
my FTP file type to Binary since I will be transferring photographs;
Then I use
the mput command to send all of the jpeg images in my local directory
to the destination website through FTP.
I need to close the FTP connection when you're done!
finished entering your own specific commands save the file.
on when ever I need to update my website Photos I run the following
command from the Linux command line:
should be a totally automated process you can just watch and enjoy!
And hopefully along the way I also helped you learn about shell
scripting, how powerful FTP script files are, and finally the joy of
some of the techniques above are not very useful in a security
sensitive environment where passwords and data should not be passed
in the clear. For those situations where things must be highly
secure, you can use the sftp command.
benefit of using sftp is that it allows all data to be transferred
using an SSH encrypted transport method. Some of the sftp commands
differ and unfortunately you must connect to an FTP server that
supports ssh connectivity to use this.
you will also find that sftp offers more control over your remote and
local server including providing a local mkdir and other commands to
control both computers through the sftp session.
I'll share how you can automatically start FTP or other sessions at
certain times of day using the at command or during certain days of
the month using the cron tables.
this beginner guide was helpful to you!
Many more beginner articles are available here.